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The Definitive Track Guide to Silverstone GP Circuit

Welcome to our circuit guide to Silverstone GP, one of the world’s best and well known race tracks. Silverstone is a fantastic mix of high-speed and flowing corners, including the infamous Maggotts and Becketts complex which has to be one of the best sequences of corners you can find.

Silverstone GP is now made up of 18 turns, over 3.6 miles and is a great testing or track day facility due to it’s large run of areas and varying corner types.  In our Definitive Circuit Guide to Silverstone GP, Scott Mansell explains how to put a great lap together as well as looking at the detail of:

  • Racing lines at Silverstone GP
  • Braking references
  • Apex points
  • Which curbs to use
  • Vision and where to look

Abbey

The new turn one at Silverstone GP is a super-fast right hander. Quite similar to the old turn one, and just as much fun. Be smooth with all your inputs as it’s such a quick corner.

Silverstone Track Guide - Abbey Corner 1

Approach

  • In most cars Abbey will require a lift or brake
  • Cars with less power or with aero might be flat
  • Be gentle with all steering and pedal inputs
  • Ensure vision is a long way ahead, at the apex

Silverstone Track Guide - Abbey Corner 2

Apex

  • There are two small red curbs on the inside of the normal curb, these mark the apex
  • Do not run over the small red curbs
  • Vision should already be towards the exit
  • There is a bump on the apex

Silverstone Track Guide - Abbey Corner 3

Exit

  • The exit is a compromise as you need to prepare for the next left-hander
  • Try not to use too much road on the left
  • There is some run-off on the left if you make an error

Farm

Quickly following turn one at Silverstone is the equally fast Farm corner. Again, flat or almost flat in most cars, so long as you haven’t been too greedy with your exit from Abbey.

Silverstone Track Guide - Farm Corner 1

Apex

  • Be smooth with all of your inputs and never lift off the accelerator too fast (it may cause lift-off oversteer)
  • Three red curbs signify the apex (see image)
  • Ensure vision is well ahead as this is a very fast corner

Silverstone Track Guide - Farm Corner 2

Exit

  • Don’t allow the car to push too far to the right (it’ll make getting back across for the next corner difficult)
  • The middle of the road is about right
  • Begin to look for braking references

Village

After the speed of turns one and two comes Silverstone GP’s slowest corners. First up, we have Village, where it’s easy to enter too fast. Village is a corner that invites you in, but tightens up as you approach the apex.

Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide - Village 1

Braking Area

  • There aren’t many braking references, distance before the entry curb is about the best
  • You’ll be braking across the circuit, aiming to turn in at the outside of the track (see image)
  • Ensure the car is in a straight line

Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide - Village 2

Turn-in

  • Now the car should be on the outside of the track
  • Vision should be at the apex
  • Remember the corner tightens
  • If you lock up or arrive too quickly, continue straight into run-off area

Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide - Village 3

Apex

  • You can use all of the curb
  • Do not touch the ‘sausage’ curb
  • Be aware when getting on throttle that you shouldn’t use all the track when exiting as you need to bring the car back to the right

Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide - Village 4

Exit

  • Do not use all of the road when exiting
  • Continue to keep steering lock in the car, to bring car over to the right as much as possible
  • Ensure vision is up at the inside of the next corner (The Loop)

The Loop

The Loop is Silverstone GP’s slowest corner, but one of the most important as it leads into Aintree corner (which is flat out in most cars) and then on to the Wellington Straight. Therefore a good exit is critical is you want to put a good lap together.

The Loop - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 1

Entry

  • Braking is required
  • Try to get as far to the right as possible, to focus on the exit
  • Ensure vision is at the apex of The Loop early, so you can gauge your speed and turn in point well

The Loop - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 2

Apex

  • Quite a late apex, as we need to focus on exit speed
  • The apex always feels really slow and awkward, but be patient
  • Do not run on the sausage curb

The Loop - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 3

Exit

  • Focus on getting the power down smoothly to maximise exit speed
  • There is some tarmac beyond the curb, however, try not to use as it will destroy you exit speed

Aintree

Following the slow-speed corner of The Loop, comes Aintree which is flat in almost all cars. You’ll need to ensure your vision is far forwards, so you can best pick out your line.

Aintree - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 1

Approach

  • Make sure your vision is a long way ahead, at the curbing on the left
  • Gently bring the car towards the apex
  • There is a large tarmac run-off around the outside

Aintree - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 2

Apex

  • There are two red bumps inside the main curb here, they signify the apex
  • Use all of the ‘normal’ red and white curb
  • Your vision should be towards the exit point – along the exit curbing

Aintree - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 3

Exit

  • Release the steering to open up Aintree as much as possible
  • It’s possible to use all of the exit curbing
  • There a strip of green concrete and more tarmac run-off in case you make a mistake

Brooklands

Next up is the heavy braking zone and medium-speed left-hander of Brooklands. The corner tightens as you enter and with a late apex, it’s easy to make a mistake.

Brooklands - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 1

Approach

  • There are numerous braking reference points here: the beginning and end of the green concrete, the start of the entry curb and the turn board (if you’re in a single-seater)
  • Remember to have your vision forwards – there are three bollards at the apex

Brooklands - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 2

Apex

  • Apex is between the 2nd and 3rd bollard (be aware these might not be there)
  • There are also the small red bumps at the apex
  • Apex is late – turn in very gently at the beginning and slowly increase steering angle

Brooklands - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 3

Exit

 

  • You can use all of the curb on the exit, but be conscious of coming back to the left a little before Luffield
  • There is astroturf and run-off area in case you make a mistake
  • Ensure your vision is beginning to look around the next corner

Luffield

Luffield is one of the slower corners of Silverstone GP and it requires lots of patience as it continues for a long time. There are a few different lines you can take, however, the focus should always be on your exit speed.

Luffield - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 1

Apex 1

  • Make an apex at the beginning of Luffield
  • You’ll likely be able to get back on to a balance throttle

Luffield - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 2

Mid-corner

  • Allow the car to push out a little at the mid-corner point
  • This will allow us to open out the exit and carry more speed on to the following straight

Luffield - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 3

Apex 2

  • Ease up off the throttle a little to allow the car to turn back in towards the curb
  • Clip the inside curb
  • Your vision should now be able to see the exit curb
  • You should be able to begin to accelerate out of Luffield

Luffield - Silverstone Circuit Guide Guide 4

Exit

  • Use all of the outside curb
  • There is a think strip of green concrete beyond the curb, after this it’s gravel
  • By now you should be flat out on the accelerator

Woodcote

Woodcote is a ‘kink’ on to the old start/finish straight. It can be flat in a lot of cars, however, a lot of care should be taken in more powerful cars with less grip or in the wet. Plenty of accidents happen on the exit of Woodcote, when drivers take the wrong line and lift – resulting in a spin towards the inside wall.

Woodcote - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 1

Apex

  • There are bollards that run on the inside of Woodcote – aim to make the apex at the last one
  • You can use the curb on the inside if necessary
  • Ensure your vision is looking towards the exit point

Woodcote - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 2

Exit

  • Take care to have a smooth line that opens on the exit of Woodcote
  • If a driver’s vision is bad they may exit the corner too early, lift and then spin towards the inside wall (see image)
  • If you are running wide, use the run-off tarmac on the outside of Woodcote

Copse

The next 7 turns at Silverstone GP are some of the best in the world. The stretch of tarmac from Copse, through Maggots, Becketts, Chapel and Stowe is truly epic. They’re all high-speed, winding and require a lot of bravery, with Copse being the fastest of them all.

Copse Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 1

Approach

  • In most cars you’ll have to lift or brake for Copse, but ensure all your inputs at this speed are smooth
  • If you do need to brake, there are numerous references on the left – namely the turning board

Copse Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 2

Turn-in

  • Your vision should be towards the curb on the inside of Copse
  • It’s difficult (impossible) to see through the corner, as the old pit lane exit wall is obstructing it
  • You can use a little of the entry curb to open out Copse as much as possible

Copse Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 3

Apex

  • There are two red bumps on the inside that signify the apex
  • Use the ‘normal’ curb, but don’t run on the two red bumps as it will unsettle the car
  • You vision should be towards the exit curbing

Copse Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 4

Exit

  • Use all of the exiting curb to open out Copse
  • There is astroturf and then tarmac run-off on the exit – so if you make a mistake, you can use this

Maggots, Becketts and Chapel

After the high speed right of Copse comes the infamous left-right-left-right-left of Maggots, Becketts and Chapel. Difficult, high-speed and exciting this is one of the most enjoyable sequence of corners anywhere in the world.

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 1

Approach to Maggots

  • Be gentle with all inputs into the car, as this section is high-speed
  • The start of the entry curb on right is a good reference for turning in
  • Ensure vision is down at the curb on the left of Maggots

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 2

Apex 1 (Maggots)

  • You can use all of the curb on the left, however, do not use the sausage curb
  • Vision should be at the next curbing on the right
  • If you need to brake, continue to do so in as straight of a line as possible

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 3

Apex 2 (Maggots)

  • The apex at second part of Maggots is highlighted with those trusty small red bumps
  • Use all the normal curb, but not the bumps
  • Vision should be looking towards the entry of Becketts

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 4

Approach to Becketts

  • It’s difficult to know exactly where to position the car
  • The car should be somewhere in the middle of the circuit, perhaps a little to the left
  • Ensure your vision is at the bollards on the left

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 5

Apex 1 (Becketts)

  • Be smooth with all inputs
  • There are the small red bumps that signify the apex
  • Vision should be towards the next apex

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 7

Apex 2 (Becketts)

  • Small red bumps mark apex
  • You can use all of the normal curb as it’s quite flat
  • This is the most important corner in the sequence, ensure you’re on the throttle early and your exit is good

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 9

Apex (Chapel)

  • You should exit Becketts/apex Chapel where the apex curb begins
  • Be careful of using the curb here, as it’s quite aggressive
  • Move your vision to the exit of Chapel corner

Maggots, Becketts, Chapel - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 10

Exit

  • In most cars all the hard work is now done and you can let the car move freely to the outside of the corner
  • The exit point is around the area where the curb finished (see image)

Stowe

Next up on our Silverstone GP circuit guide – and following the long Hanger Straight – is the rapid Stowe corner. Stowe is a medium-to-high speed right hander over a slight crest.

Stowe Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 1

Approach

  • As you approach you’ll want to leave a little room on the left of the circuit
  • This ensures that you won’t have to turn when you’re braking, as the circuit comes across slightly in the braking zone
  • Vision should be down towards the apex

Stowe Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 2

Braking

  • You’ll be braking across the track very slightly
  • There are numerous braking references (see image)

Stowe Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 3

Apex

  • There are three red bumps on the inside that signify the apex – use the second bump
  • Use the ‘normal’ curb a little, but don’t run on the red bumps as it will unsettle the car
  • Your vision should be ahead of yourself, however it’s difficult due to the crest

Stowe Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 4

Exit

  • Use all of the red and white exit curbing
  • Be careful of the astroturf (especially in the wet)
  • Beyond the astroturf is a little tarmac run-off area

Vale

Vale is a slow speed left-right which is important to getting a good lap time, as it leads on to the new start-finish straight. Get a good exit here and you’ll ensure a good start/finish to your lap.

Vale - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 2

Braking

  • There are numerous braking references, namely the gantry, turn-in board or the start of the entry curb
  • Braking is downhill and a little bumpy
  • Ensure vision is towards the apex

Vale - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 3

Apex (left)

  • Use all of the normal curb
  • Do not use the sausage curb
  • You’ll need to compromise some speed through the left, so that you can maximise speed through the right and on to the following straight

Vale - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 4

Apex (right)

  • The apex is where the green concrete meets the curb (see image)
  • You should have restricted the left enough to carry maximum speed through the right
  • Vision should be towards the exit curbing

Vale - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 5

Exit

  • Use all of the exit curb
  • Do not ‘fall off’ onto the astroturf – the circuit is still turning slightly which makes it difficult to get back on to the circuit if you do run on the astroturf
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Club

The final corner of Silverstone GP circuit is Club. In most cars Club is flat, meaning that the exit out of Vale is critically important to lap time. Good vision is necessary for a clean line though this corner.

Club Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 1

Approach

  • Ensure your vision is well ahead – at the apex curb
  • Smoothly load the car up and bring into the apex

Club Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 2

Apex

  • Use all of the apex curb
  • Do not use the sausage curb
  • Vision should be towards the exit curbing
  • There is some run-off area in case you make a mistake

Club Corner - Silverstone Track Guide Guide 4

Exit

  • Use all of the exit curbing
  • Take care on the astroturf (especially in the wet)
  • A common accident here is to exit the corner too early, lift off the accelerator and spin into the pit wall
  • Flags and boards are shown here (see image)

Reference: https://driver61.com/

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How to fix understeer in rFactor 2

Following on from our article about how to fix oversteer in rFactor 2, today we bring you part two of this series, offering hints and tips on fixing understeer. Like the oversteer article before it, we will use the same framework to explore what options are available in ACC to minimise understeer in a setup. 

You will not be surprised that a lot of it will be about doing the opposite of what we suggested in the previous article, so let’s get to it. 

What is understeer?

“Understeer is where a car rotates slower than the racing driver wants and results in the front of the car sliding across the surface of the track.”

Seems fairly straight forward, but how do we use the setup parameters in rF2 to solve this problem?

In order to solve our understeer problems we will focus on some key setup areas of the car:

  • Rear ride height
  • Rear wing level
  • Anti-roll bars
  • Spring rates
  • Bump stops
  • Rear toe
  • Dampers
  • Differential 

In this article we will focus on the broader rules of setup as opposed to exploring car specifics. In most cases, it is always better to have an oversteering car than an understeering one. This is because a driver can much more easily influence how much oversteer they want the car to have corner to corner, whereas there is nothing you can do to reduce heavy understeer, other than to over slow the car a lot and wait for the front end of the car to grip up again. 

RIDE HEIGHT AND WING LEVEL

In rF2 ride height is very important. Due to GT3 cars being very aero sensitive, you want to run the car as low as you can on the front to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible, without the risk of stalling the floor of the car or bottoming the car out over kerbs or big compressions. 

Because of this, once you have settled on a good front ride height, focus then shifts to your rear ride height and balancing that with the wing level you are currently running on the car. When you raise the rear of a car in rF2 you are shifting the centre of pressure forwards and therefore dialling more oversteer into the setup. This is because you are increasing the difference between the front and rear ride heights and this promotes an effect where the floor of the car isn’t being sealed as effectively as before. Whilst the area of low pressure is greater within the main diffuser area, the cars downforce production and operating window become peakier. 

This then brings us onto the wing level you choose to run. Adding wing level to a car in ACC has the opposite effect of raising the rear ride height. By adding downforce to the rear of the car you are taking the centre of the pressure away from the front of the car, adding more force over the rear wheels in the form of aerodynamic load and therefore creating a more understeer biased car.

To summarise

If you are experiencing understeer there are a couple of things you can do. To gain more rotation at slow speed it is generally best to raise the rear ride height up to the point where you feel the car is starting to be nervous on the transition from braking to turn in. That is generally the moment the floor is starting to feel the effects of not being sealed properly at low speed.

In higher speed corners when aero loads increase, you normally experience understeer if your wing levels are too high as the centre of pressure is too far rearwards. At this point the wing becomes a tweaking tool where you get the car into a window where it maintains good minimum apex speed whilst not being too safe and stable. 

  • Understeer in slow corners: Raise rear ride height
  • Understeer in high fast corners: Lower rear wing 
  • Understeer over the whole lap: Raise rear ride height and lower rear wing 

ANTI-ROLL BARS

Generally, if you have a setup where the spring rates and dampers are to your liking, anti-roll bars can become a key component in shifting car balance to become more neutral front and rear. 

One thing to remember about anti-roll bars, they do not directly generate or take away grip from a car, they simply alter how the load of the car is being distributed across the tyres during the cornering phase. The aim of anti-roll bars is to allow a driver to reach the cars optimum grip potential. Any deviation towards understeer or oversteer takes the car away from that. 

With that in mind, how would anti-roll bars create understeer and what do we need to do? 

By softening the anti-roll bars you are making the car more susceptible to roll when the car is loaded up in the corner. This makes the car slightly less responsive and therefore in most instances safer and more stable. If you find your car in rF2 is nervous through the entry and mid-corner phase, there are a couple of things you can do with the bars to make it more neutral. 

Softening the front ARB will mean the front of the car will roll more during the cornering phase. Because this, therefore, decreases the roll stiffness and the weight transfer from one side to the other is controlled far slower building the load up in the tyres progressively on the front, the car will want to oversteer more. 

Alternatively, stiffening the rear ARB will do the opposite. In this instance, it will mean the rear of the car will roll far less during  the cornering phase. Because this, therefore, increases the roll stiffness and the weight transfer from one side to the other is increased, the car will want to oversteer more. 

SPRING RATES 

When it comes to rectifying understeer through spring rate changes, we need to be careful, as spring rates not only affect kerb handling/bumps but also control how a car pitches through acceleration and braking phases. Spring rates are an integral part of your setup, therefore any big changes will have knock-on effects through the whole lap. 

With GT3 cars being so aerodynamically sensitive, your spring rates are directly linked to your ride height. Due to you wanting to run the ride height as low as possible, compromises need to be made with your spring rates to ensure the car doesn’t bottom out under pitching loads and compressions. This generally means you want to run them pretty stiff as a rule of thumb. 

However, how stiff is very car-dependent and so we will keep this broad in spectrum. Softer spring rates will inevitably allow the car to pitch more forwards and backwards under big acceleration and braking phases, this is through the greater weight transfer the car is experiencing and this can lead to instability. 

Front and rear spring rates also play a greater role in differing parts of the corner. If your springs are too soft on the front for example, under big braking loads, the front will pitch too much and therefore the rear will become unloaded very fast. This will promote oversteer on the entry to a corner as grip at the rear has been taken away under the pitching motion. 

So how does this tie into rectifying understeer? 

In this instance, softening the front spring rates will increase that weight transfer to the front of the car and therefore decrease the understeer on the entry/ braking phase as the rear of the car becomes unloaded far quicker. 

When it comes to rear springs, running them too soft can also cause understeer. With a softer spring comes more load transfer and also more absorption of bumps and kerbs. This affects the car in a different part of the corner, most notably mid to exit. If you find the car you are driving in ACC too sluggish at the rear under power or on exit kerbs in higher speed corners, it will generally mean your rear spring rate is too soft. 

With less load transfer to the rear under power, there is less load pushing the rear of the car into the ground meaning a car that is more willing to rotate at speed 

With aero loads reduced in slow corners, mechanical grip plays a much bigger role in regards to car behaviour. This is why front end bite on a stiffer front spring won’t be as strong and that is why you will encounter more issues with stiffer rates as opposed to a softer spring which loads up the tyre more and allows for more weight transfer. 

To summarise

  • Understeer in fast corners: Stiffen rear springs 
  • Understeer in slow corners: Soften front springs 
  • Understeer under braking: Soften front springs/stiffen rear springs

BUMP STOPS

Bump stops can be used to reduce the compromises that need to be made with the spring rates. Think of the device as an additional cushion or shock absorber on top of the spring. In rFactor 2, not only can we determine how much travel the spring has before it hits the bump stops, we can also determine its stiffness through the rate. So how can we use these to help solve understeer? 

If you do not want to compromise on the spring rates in your setup, bump stops are a great way to control pitch and kerb handling. The way you can promote forward pitch under braking for example, to aid understeer with bump stops is increasing the range of the bump stop before the spring hits it. This is a great way of running stiffer springs to aid stability within the aero platform, yet not running into the bump stops too early so that the car oscillates and bounces back causing understeer which would lead to instability, as the car isn’t allowed to pitch over a certain amount. You are essentially giving the spring more room to breathe. 

This can also be applied to the rear of the car. In some cars like the Porsche, where there is great weight over the rear wheels thanks to the engine, the bump stops can be used to limit oscillations at the rear under hard acceleration as the car pitches rearwards. 

For most cars, you want to run a very high rear bump stop range at the rear, however it can create understeer as the rear spring receives the weight transfer under acceleration and unloads the front tyres too much. By limiting the spring travel on the rear by reducing the bump stop range, it can be a method of reducing exit understeer. 

To summarise

  • Understeer under braking: Increase front bump stop range and stiffen the rate 
  • Understeer in slow corners: Lower rear bump stop range 
  • Understeer in fast corners: Increase front bump stop range and stiffen the rate 

REAR TOE

Rear toe is a fantastic tool to use to fine-tune car behaviour once the rest of your alignment/suspension settings are to your liking. In rF2, all cars run positive rear toe or what’s called toe-in. 

Essentially, rear toe affects how quickly the car rotates during a corner. Greater rear toe will cause the loaded outside tyre entering a corner to start with a slight slip angle, meaning cornering forces are going to build up much faster. The loaded tyre is also going to reach maximum rotation much faster for the drivers given steering input creating a more stable platform during the cornering phase. 

With the above in mind, if you are encountering turn in or mid-corner understeer, decreasing the amount of rear toe-in will help reduce it and take the car closer to an oversteer/neutral bias. In addition, this does come with the upside too of less drag, due to the cars rear tyres being pointed inwards far less than before, which leads to a positive impact in straight-line speed.

On shorter or twisty circuits, the benefit of lower rear toe can be most felt in initial rotation or quick direction changes. However it will have to be managed as you can quickly overheat rear tyres or cause blistering in hotter temperatures due to too much wheelspin. The key here is to reduce the rear toe enough so that you are on the verge of encountering that wheelspin but retain enough rotation to eradicate the understeer. 

To summarise 

  • Understeer > Decrease Rear toe > Increase straight-line speed

DIFFERENTIAL

In rF2 we have been given a simple differential with only one setting to adjust. Whereas in other sims we have diffs with preload, coast and power settings that can be adjusted, in Assetto Corsa Competizione we do not have to worry about that. 

In that regard, the differential can be explained quite easily. The setting we are adjusting in the setup menu is the preload and indicates how early or late the differential opens up and then locks again. A greater preload figure will force the rear wheels to rotate at the same speed for longer before the diff fully opens up and gives the car more rotation on corner entry. 

A lower figure will do the opposite, with the differential opening up earlier and allowing the rear wheels to rotate at different speeds far earlier into the corner. It will however lock up far later under power once you are at the exit of the corner. This means that traction is affected, as both rear wheels aren’t being forced to rotate at the same time as early as a higher figure selected in the setup menu. 

Now we know the difference between them, we can understand how it will affect understeer in different parts of the corner. In the entry to mid-phase of a corner, a higher diff setting will promote understeer as the diff is trying to unlock far later, whilst the car is also trying to deal with the braking and turn in phases. The knock-on effect is the car will naturally want to pull itself around the corner far less whilst requiring more steering input, creating an unresponsive front end

When it comes to latter parts of the corner, primarily on the exit when you are applying the throttle again, you may encounter understeer due to your differential setting being too low. Whilst with a high diff setting you may encounter slight wheelspin on the exit, it won’t promote understeer due to the wheelspin being caused by the inside rear tyre. 

With a lower differential setting the understeer is caused by both rear wheels not being forced to accelerate together earlier. This means on power, especially on worn tyres, a car with a diff setting too low can become unresponsive on the exit of corners.

To summarise

  • Understeer under braking/mid-corner: Lower differential preload 
  • Understeer under power on exit:  Raise differential preload

FRONT AND REAR DAMPING

In rFactor 2, we have got 4-way adjustable damping available to us, broken up into rebound and bump in both slow and fast states. What dampers essentially do is help dissipate any vertical movement in the suspension and keep spring travel under control. This has a knock-on effect on helping keep the wheels on all 4 corners of the car in contact with the ground. Bump and rebound control both the compression and extension of the damper, they don’t directly control load levels received, but instead controls the speed of the load changes and ensure the suspension reacts in a stable manner. 

Tracks that have more bumps or quick transitions & changes of direction require more emphasis on dampers. The quicker the suspension has to react and move to the circuit’s demands, the more effect the dampers have. 

Because kerb handling and bump behaviour is very important on a lot of circuits in ACC, it makes sense to tune dampers to allow your car to take them effectively. However, going too far one way or another can lead to an unpredictable car. 

So let’s quickly highlight what can happen if you go too far on both bump and rebound:

  • Too much bump: Initial compression is very harsh > resistance to chassis roll
  • Too little bump: Car will dive a lot>great weight transfer > lots of body roll
  • Too much rebound: Tyres struggle to maintain contact on track surface > Inside wheels pulled away from the track surface
  • Too little rebound: Car will oscillate for a long time after hitting bumps > Car will struggle for traction on the exit of corners

With the above in mind, we can deduct a few things and help solve understeer utilising the dampers in a few scenarios. If you are encountering turn in understeer, it could be that the slow bump setting on the front is far too firm, allowing for not enough pitch/dive and weight transfer, meaning the front tyres want to scrub across the surface of the track. Therefore increasing the softening the front bump setting will help bring the car into a more neutral state. 

If you are struggling for rotation on the exit of a corner, you may need to increase your rear slow bump setting. This is because the initial compression under the longitudinal load of acceleration may be too much, leading to the car pitching rearwards and therefore the front tyres become unloaded far quicker. 

The same can also be applied to rebound. Increasing the rear rebound will allow the rear wheels to settle more slowly on the track and hold the rear tyres in the arches for a little  longer under heavy braking phases. This will eradicate understeer and bring the car closer to an oversteer bias. Front rebound can also help corner exit understeer. By lowering the speed at which the front tyre settles on the track after the load has transferred rearwards, will allow the front of the car to bite less, meaning the overall grip percentage front to rear increases.  

To summarise

  • Decreasing front bump > More oversteer 
  • Increasing rear bump > More oversteer
  • Decreasing front rebound > More oversteer
  • Increasing rear rebound > More oversteer

SUMMARY 

Depending on how understeer biased the setup is will determine how many solutions you adopt to get the car into a window that is comfortable for you. 

Certain changes like spring rates and rear ride height will have a greater effect than tweaking tools like rear toe and the differential. That is true for cars too as some may require more changes and others less so. Use this article as a rough guide to understand the basics of rectifying understeer and use the tips to make a safe and predictable car a thing of the past for you in ACC.

If you’re looking for pre-built setups created by professional engineers and sim drivers, then take a look at rFactor 2 Setups.

Reference: coachdaveacademy.com/

Porsche_911_GT3_Cup_screenshot_01

How to fix oversteer in rFactor 2

Setups play an integral part in rFactor 2. Not only can a setup determine your overall pace, but it can also determine your consistency and race management throughout a stint. Finding that neutral balance in the setup is a key component of going quickly in ACC and it comes down to managing both oversteer and understeer tendencies. 

Whilst we will explore solving understeer in a separate article, our focus today is offering you some tips to identify and solve oversteer.

What is oversteer? 

“Oversteer is where a car rotates faster than the racing driver wants and results in the rear of the car becoming unstable.”

Simple right, so how do we rectify that? 

There are a few key areas that you can focus on with rectifying oversteer in ACC through the setup. These main areas are: 

  • Rear ride height
  • Rear wing level
  • Anti-roll bars
  • Spring rates
  • Bump stops
  • Rear toe
  • Dampers
  • Differential 

There are a couple of the areas above which can be quite specific to a particular type of car. For example, front-engined and mid-engined cars will behave differently naturally. That is down to where the weight is situated within the car and therefore will promote certain tendencies. But let’s focus on the general rules of thumb we can apply in this article.  

RIDE HEIGHT AND WING LEVEL

In ACC ride height is very important. Due to GT3 cars being very aero sensitive, you want to run the car as low as you can on the front to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible, without the risk of stalling the floor of the car or bottoming the car out over kerbs or big compressions. 

Because of this, once you have settled on a good front ride height, focus then shifts to your rear ride height and balancing that with the wing level you are currently running on the car. When you raise the rear of a car in ACC you are shifting the centre of pressure forwards and therefore dialling more oversteer into the setup. This is because you are increasing the differential between the front and rear ride heights and this promotes an effect where the floor of the car isn’t being sealed as effectively as before. Whilst the area of low pressure is greater within the main diffuser area, the cars downforce production and operating window become peakier. 

This then brings us onto the wing level you choose to run. Adding wing level to a car in ACC has the opposite effect of raising the rear ride height. By adding downforce to the rear of the car you are taking the centre of the pressure away from the front of the car, adding more force over the rear wheels in the form of aerodynamic load and therefore creating a more understeer biased car.

To summarise

If you are encountering oversteer especially on entry, either increasing wing level or lowering the rear ride height will help make the car a more stable platform. Depending on how severe the symptoms are, one or the other might solve it, however, sometimes you will need to both add wing and lower rear ride height. 

ANTI-ROLL BARS

Generally, if you have a setup where the spring rates and dampers are to your liking, anti-roll bars can become a key component in shifting car balance to become more neutral front and rear. 

One thing to remember about anti-roll bars, they do not directly generate or take away grip from a car, they simply alter how the load of the car is being distributed across the tyres during the cornering phase. The aim of anti-roll bars is to allow a driver to reach the cars optimum grip potential. Any deviation towards understeer or oversteer takes the car away from that. 

With that in mind, how would anti-roll bars create oversteer and what do we need to do? 

By stiffening the anti-roll bars you are making the car less susceptible to roll when the car is loaded up in the corner. This makes the car more responsive and therefore in some instances more nervous. If you find your car in ACC is nervous through the entry and mid-corner phase, there are a couple of things you can do with the bars to make it more neutral. 

Stiffening the front ARB will mean the front of the car will roll less during the cornering phase. Because this, therefore, increases the roll stiffness and the weight transfer from one side to the other is controlled far more, the car will want to understeer more. 

Alternatively, softening the rear ARB will do the opposite. In this instance, it will mean the rear of the car will roll more during the cornering phase. Because this, therefore, decreases the roll stiffness and the weight transfer from one side to the other is much slower, the car will want to understeer more. 

SPRING RATES

When it comes to rectifying oversteer through spring rate changes, we need to be careful, as spring rates not only affect kerb handling/bumps but also control how a car pitches through acceleration and braking phases. Spring rates are an integral part of your setup, therefore any big changes will have knock-on effects through the whole lap. 

With GT3 cars being so aerodynamically sensitive, your spring rates are directly linked to your ride height. Due to you wanting to run the ride height as low as possible, compromises need to be made with your spring rates to ensure the car doesn’t bottom out under pitching loads and compressions. This generally means you want to run them pretty stiff as a rule of thumb. 

However, how stiff is very car-dependent and so we will keep this broad in spectrum. Softer spring rates will inevitably allow the car to pitch more forwards and backwards under big acceleration and braking phases, this is through the greater weight transfer the car is experiencing and this can lead to instability. 

Front and rear spring rates also play a greater role in differing parts of the corner. If your springs are too soft on the front for example, under big braking loads, the front will pitch too much and therefore the rear will become unloaded very fast. This will promote oversteer on the entry to a corner as grip at the rear has been taken away under the pitching motion. 

In this instance, stiffening the front spring rates will reduce the weight transfer to the front of the car and therefore decrease the oversteer on the entry/ braking phase. 

When it comes to rear springs, running them too stiff can also cause oversteer. With a stiffer spring comes less load transfer and also less absorption of bumps and kerbs. This affects the car in a different part of the corner, most notably mid to exit. If you find the car you are driving in ACC too nervous at the rear under power or on exit kerbs in slower corners, it will generally mean your rear spring rate is too stiff. With less load transfer to the rear under power, there is less load pushing the rear of the car into the ground meaning a more nervous rear end. 

With aero loads reduced in slow corners, mechanical grip plays a much bigger role in regards to rear stability and that is why you will encounter more issues with stiffer rear spring rates.  

To summarise 

  • Oversteer in fast corners: Stiffen front springs 
  • Oversteer in slow corners: Soften rear springs 
  • Oversteer under braking: Stiffen front springs 

BUMP STOPS

Bump stops can be used to mitigate the compromises that need to be with the spring rates. Think of the device as an additional cushion or shock absorber on top of the spring. In rFactor 2, not only can we determine how much travel the spring has before it hits the bump stops, we can also determine its stiffness through the rate. So how can we use these to help solve oversteer? 

If you do not want to compromise on the spring rates in your setup, bump stops are a great way to control pitch and kerb handling. The way you can limit forward pitch under braking for example with bump stops is reducing the range of the bump stop before the spring hits it. This is a great way of running softer springs to aid kerb behaviour/bumpy tracks, yet not disrupting the aero platform of the car you are driving which would lead to instability, as the car isn’t allowed to pitch over a certain amount. 

This can also be applied to the rear of the car. In some cars like the Porsche, where there is great weight over the rear wheels thanks to the engine, the bump stops can be used to limit oscillations at the rear under hard acceleration as the car pitches rearwards. For most cars, you want to run a very high rear bumpstop range at the rear. This is because hitting the bumpstops under hard acceleration regularly will cause the car to porpoise and therefore limit traction and create oversteer. 

To summarise

  • Oversteer under braking: Lower bump stop range and soften the rate 
  • Oversteer in slow corners: Increase rear bump stop range 
  • Oversteer in fast corners: Lower bump stop range and soften the rate 

REAR TOE

Rear toe is a fantastic tool to use to fine-tune car behaviour once the rest of your alignment/suspension settings are to your liking. In rFactor 2, all cars run positive rear toe or what’s called toe-in. 

Essentially, rear toe affects how quickly the car rotates during a corner. Greater rear toe will cause the loaded outside tyre entering a corner to start with a slight slip angle, meaning cornering forces are going to build up much faster. The loaded tyre is also going to reach maximum rotation much faster for the drivers given steering input creating a more stable platform during the cornering phase. 

With the above in mind, if you are encountering turn in or mid-corner oversteer, increasing the amount of rear toe-in will help reduce it and take the car closer to an understeer bias. This, however, does come with the downside of added drag, due to the cars rear tyres being pointed inwards, which leads to an impact in straight-line speed.

On shorter or twisty circuits, the downside of the greater rear toe is outweighed by the advantages in the stability it provides, however on high speed or flowing circuits it might be wise to start elsewhere with reducing oversteer. 

To summarise 

  • Oversteer > Increase Rear toe > Lower straight-line speed

DIFFERENTIAL

In rF2 we have been given a simple differential with only one setting to adjust. Whereas in other sims we have diffs with preload, coast and power settings that can be adjusted, in Assetto Corsa Competizione we do not have to worry about that. 

In that regard, the differential can be explained quite easily. The setting we are adjusting in the setup menu is the preload and indicates how early or late the differential opens up and then locks again. A greater preload figure will force the rear wheels to rotate at the same speed for longer before the diff fully opens up and gives the car more rotation on corner entry. 

A lower figure will do the opposite, with the differential opening up earlier and allowing the rear wheels to rotate at different speeds far earlier into the corner. It will however lock up far later under power once you are at the exit of the corner. This means that traction is affected, as both rear wheels aren’t being forced to rotate at the same time as early as a higher figure selected in the setup menu. 

Now we know the difference between them, we can understand how it will affect oversteer in different parts of the corner. In the entry to mid-phase of a corner, a lower diff setting will promote oversteer as the diff is trying to unlock far earlier, whilst the car is also trying to deal with the braking and turn in phases. The knock-on effect is the car will naturally want to pull itself around the corner far more with less steering input, also creating instability in some instances. 

When it comes to latter parts of the corner, primarily on the exit when you are applying the throttle again, you may encounter oversteer due to your differential setting being too high. Whilst with a low diff setting you may encounter wheelspin on the exit, it won’t promote oversteer due to the wheelspin being caused by the inside rear tyre. 

With a higher differential setting the oversteer is caused by both rear wheels being forced to accelerate together much earlier. This means on power, especially on worn tyres, a car with a diff setting too high can become snappy and unpredictable. 

To summarise

  • Oversteer under braking/mid-corner: Raise differential preload 
  • Oversteer under power on exit: Lower differential preload

DAMPERS

In rFactor 2, we have got 4-way adjustable damping available to us, broken up into rebound and bump in both slow and fast states. What dampers essentially do is help dissipate any vertical movement in the suspension and keep spring travel under control. This has a knock-on effect on helping keep the wheels on all 4 corners of the car in contact with the ground. Bump and rebound control both the compression and extension of the damper, they don’t directly control load levels received, but instead controls the speed of the load changes and ensure the suspension reacts in a stable manner. 

Tracks that have more bumps or quick transitions and changes of direction require more emphasis on dampers. The quicker the suspension has to react and move to the circuit’s demands, the more effect the dampers have. 

Because kerb handling and bump behaviour is very important on a lot of circuits in rF2, it makes sense to tune dampers to allow your car to take them effectively. However, going too far one way or another can lead to an unpredictable car. 

So let’s quickly highlight what can happen if you go too far on both bump and rebound and how that can cause oversteer. 

  • Too much bump: Initial compression is very harsh > resistance to chassis roll
  • Too little bump: Car will dive a lot > great weight transfer > lots of body roll
  • Too much rebound: Tyres struggle to maintain contact on track surface > Inside wheels pulled away from the track surface
  • Too little rebound: Car will oscillate for a long time after hitting bumps > Car will struggle for traction on the exit of corners

With the above in mind, we can deduct a few things and help solve oversteer utilising the dampers in a few scenarios. If you are encountering turn in oversteer, it could be that the slow bump setting on the front is far too soft, allowing for more pitch/dive and weight transfer than the tyres can cope with. Therefore increasing the front bump setting will help bring the car into a more natural state. 

If you are struggling for traction on the exit of a corner, you may need to reduce your rear slow bump setting. This is because the initial compression under the longitudinal load of acceleration may be too harsh causing oscillations and therefore the tyres skate across the surface of the track. 

The same can also be applied to rebound. Lowering the rear rebound will allow the rear wheels to settle quickly enough on the track and not hold them in the arches for too long under heavy braking phases. If not, the car will generate oversteer. Front rebound can also help corner exit oversteer. By Increasing the speed at which the front tyre settles on the track after the load has transferred rearwards, will allow the front of the car to bite earlier and promote a more understeer nature in the setup.  

To Summarise

  • Increasing front bump = More understeer
  • Reducing rear bump = More understeer
  • Increasing front rebound = More understeer
  • Reducing rear rebound = More understeer 

SUMMARY 

As you can see from the list above, in rFactor2 there is plenty of scope in the setup options to deal with and eradicate oversteer. Depending on how oversteer biased the setup is will determine how many solutions you adopt to get the car into a window that is comfortable for you. 

Certain changes like spring rates and rear ride height will have a greater effect than tweaking tools like rear toe and the differential. That is true for cars too as some may require more changes and others less so. Use this article as a rough guide to understand the basics of rectifying oversteer and use the tips to make a nervous car a thing of the past for you in rFactor 2.

If you’re looking for pre-built setups created by professional engineers and sim drivers, then take a look at rFacto2 Setups.

Reference: coachdaveacademy.com/

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2020 Bentley Continental GT3 release

Luxury car makers are renowned for their classical lines, stylish interiors and comfortable driving experience. Elegance and poise are the undisputed king and queen of high end road car manufacturers, creating machinery that excels on long distance journeys to short hops around the many beautiful countryside’s of the world.

The Bentley Continental GT was no exception to this expected practice, having been quickly regarded as one of the finest vehicles of its class following a public reveal back at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, within the confines of the spectacular 228,211m2 Paris expo Porte de Versailles facility. Not content to rest on their laurels, in 2017 Bentley launched the brand new third generation Continental GT to the world, enhancing and improving the car yet further to create what would form the basis of the hugely successful Continental GT3.

Motorsport has been at the heart of Bentley throughout its first 100 years. In 1921, just two years after the first Bentley prototype was revealed, it was racing at the world famous 24 Hours of Le Mans. Today, Bentley races into its next 100 years with the Continental GT3, it’s most dynamic and powerful race car based on its most advanced road car yet. Designed by Bentley at its headquarters in Crewe, the Continental GT3 is raced by the luxury brand’s successful and prestigious teams around the world. The customer racing programme includes the global Intercontinental GT Challenge, as well as some of the top national and international GT3 championships.

In 2018, Bentley Motorsport unveiled the thrilling new Continental GT3 race car. Lighter, more dynamic and even more powerful than its multi-championship-winning predecessor, it’s the most exciting race car ever created by Bentley – because it is closely based on the company’s most advanced road car the newly launched Continental GT.

In 2020, Bentley’s racing teams will challenge for victories around the globe. Competing on five continents against the major premium and performance automotive brands, Bentley and its top-level race teams always aim to be class-leaders.

The 2020 Bentley Continental GT3, capable of delivering in excess of 550bhp, has already enjoyed victory at the 2019 Circuit Paul Ricard 1000km and the 2020 Liqui-Moly Bathurst 12-hour endurance events. Looking every inch the championship contender, rFactor 2 players now have the opportunity to race this exceptional car within the simulation – and better yet, it has been added as free content for anyone who already owns the current GT3 Bentley DLC (available from the rFactor 2 Steam Store HERE). That’s right, we have made the decision to release this fantastic new entry into the ever expanding array of GT3 specification race cars within rFactor 2 as a free content addition for owners of the Bentley Continental GT3 DLC. Absolutely anyone who already owns either theoriginal Bentley or the GT3 Bundle will get this new machine and it’s various racing liveries at absolutely no additional cost! 

You don’t even need to do anything manually; the new car will automatically download the next time you start your Steam client. If you don’t yet own either Bentley, fear not, the car is now packaged together on the Steam Store as a two car item (for the same price as the original machine).

Just head over to the rFactor 2 Steam Store, purchase the DLC and enjoy both generations of Bentley GT3 machinery within the rFactor 2 simulation! Purchase HERE:

https://store.steampowered.com/itemstore/365960/detail/2/

If you don’t own any of the GT3 cars yet, you can also grab the full GT3 Bundle which includes all 12 cars HERE:

https://store.steampowered.com/itemstore/365960/detail/1001/

If you can’t wait to get your hands on the new car and you fancy some interesting reading about what makes up the nuts and bolts of this latest release, check out some of the technical specifications from the 2020 Bentley Continental GT3, and the various championships in which this racing titan will be plying its trade during the somewhat disrupted 2020 season. Bentley Continental GT3 Technical Specifications.

  • Engine: 4.0-litre direct injection twin-turbo V8 developed with the most advance lubricants from Mobil 1 and a Cosworth engine management system
  • Max Power: Approx. 550 bhp derestricted
  • Transmission: Rear wheel drive, Ricardo six-speed sequential longitudinal gearbox, steering wheel mounted paddle-operated pneumatic gear shift
  • Drivetrain: Carbon fibre propshaft, limited slip differential
  • Wheels: BBS Forged Motorsport 18” x 13” rims
  • Tyres: 355 / 705 R18
  • Aerodynamics: Carbon fibre front splitter, rear wing and body panels. Lightweight, aerodynamically-optimised bumpers, bonnet, sills and fenders
  • Length: 4860 mm
  • Width: 2045 mm
  • Height: 1355 mm
  • Weight: <1300 kg

As GT3 racing continues to gather popularity across the globe, the Bentley Continental GT3 is set to participate in numerous prestigious endurance racing championship, having already been confirmed as present for the GT World Challenge Europe and Asia championships, British GT, the German ADAC GT Masters and the International GT Open categories. The Bentley success story continues into 2020, and now you have the chance to take on the race tracks of the world in this fantastic new car – all from the comfort of your own rFactor 2 racing simulation.

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rFactor 2 GT3 BOP Release

GT3 BOP Updates

Endurance and GT racing has been brought up on the ethos of converging differing Grand Touring Car designs and shapes into an even playing field of competition. Nowhere else in the world of motorsport can you find such an eclectic mix of different cars, brands and design concepts coming together and competing on the same track, with similar chances of challenging at the very front of the grid.

As GT3 specification competition has continued to grow in popularity around the world, much of the success of the category has to be laid firmly at the door of the less than glamorous world of Balance of Performance, or BOP as it is more commonly known.

Always the subject of many off track debates amongst teams and drivers, BOP is a method employed by many championships to ensure cars of differing shapes and sizes can race together fairly within a common set of regulations, preventing the potential for runaway championship leaders and ensuring a fair shot of success is open to all brands within a series.

As in the real world, our virtual counterparts in rFactor 2 are also subject to these BOP restrictions, as unlike the real world counterpart, should a car prove to be consistently superior to its class rivals, it is rather easier for the sim racer looking to gain an advantage and select the fastest car than it is for a real world team to find hundreds of thousands of dollars to swap machines for the season ahead.

As such, here at Studio 397 we have been working incredibly hard to bring a realistic and fair Balance of Performance to the enviable list of GT3 cars currently in the simulation. Our development team and testers have pounded round the circuit for endless hours tweaking and refining the cars to ensure they retain their individual characters, their inherent strengths and weaknesses and their real world performance levels, whilst still providing an even set of ultimate speed in comparison to each other – just like in the real world!

GT3 Changelog

Includes BOP, Physics, and In-car dash updates

Aston Martin Vantage GT3
v1.71
BOP

  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights),
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu,
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • New default setup
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.

In-car dash

  • Added Engine Mixture levels
  • Added ABS levels
  • Added new alarms for low fuel and oil temperature

Audi R8 LMS 2018
v1.75
BOP

  • Reduced drag by about 2%,
  • Added 5kg of weight penalty,
  • Reduced engine torque/power output by about 1%.

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights),
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling
  • New default setup

Audi R8 LMS 2019
v1.45
BOP

  • Reduced drag by about 4%,
  • Added 10kg of weight penalty
  • Reduced engine torque/power output by about 1%

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights)
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling
  • New default setup

Bentley Continental GT3
v2.73
BOP

  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights),
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu,
  • Reduced engine inertia,
  • Adjusted steering rack ratio (it’s slightly tigher now),
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.
  • New default setup

In-car dash

  • Added Engine Mixture levels
  • Added ABS levels
  • Added TC levels

BMW M6 GT3
v1.67
BOP

  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP.

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights),
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu,
  • Reduced engine inertia,
  • Camber is adjustable in smaller steps (0.1deg, was 0.25deg before)
  • Adjustments to differential locking and preload
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling
  • New default setup

Callaway C7 GT3-R
v2.81
BOP

  • Increased engine torque/power output by about 2%.

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights)
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • Higher engine braking, adjusted launch rpm, adjusted engine lifetime rpm (results in higher engine lifetime)
  • Moved aero balance forward by about 4% percent points
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.
  • New default setup

McLaren 720S GT3
v1.61
BOP

  • Added 10kg of weight penalty,
  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights),
  • Reduced engine inertia,
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu,
  • Fix for some spring options beeing too stiff,
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.
  • New default setup

McLaren 650S GT3
v2.71
BOP

  • Added 5kg of weight penalty,
  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights)
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu
  • Realigned suspension geometry (to better match the data, which also results in slightly slower steering ratio)
  • Adjusted vertical and lateral CG location
  • Higher roll damping for anti-roll bars
  • Slightly higher clutch inertia
  • Fix for some spring options beeing too stiff
  • New default setup,
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.
  • New default setup

Porsche 911 GT3-R
BOP

  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights)
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu
  • Increased balance shift coming from changes to the rear wing angle (which now has 18 positions vs 20)
  • Fix to rear suspension’s inner joints beeing too low for a given ride height
  • Higher differential preload (by about 19%)
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.
  • New default setup

In-car dash

  • Added Engine Mixture levels
  • Added ABS levels

Radical GT3
v2.67
BOP

  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP.

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights)
  • Reduced engine inertia
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu
  • Realigned suspension geometry and fix to motion ratios, resulting in different min/max damper lengths and stiffer spring/damper rates
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling
  • New default setup

In-car dash

  • Added Engine Mixture levels
  • Added ABS levels

Mercedes AMG GT3
v2.75
BOP

  • Fuel consumption tweaked to match reference for BoP.

Physics

  • Reworked aerodynamics (more sensitive to changes in ride heights),
  • Reduced engine inertia,
  • Fix for radiator cooling options not showing properly in the pitmenu,
  • Added 10% steps for radiator cooling.
  • New default setup

In-car dash

  • Added Engine Mixture levels
  • Added ABS levels

by Studio 397 www.studio397.com

pedals

Ultimate guide to braking

This Driver’s University tutorial will cover the following braking topics:

  • Types of braking systems (traditional and ABS)
  • A pro’s brake pressure data trace
  • How to brake without ABS
  • How to brake with ABS
  • Braking for fast and slow corners
  • Common mistakes when braking on track
  • An intro to advanced braking techniques

The Importance of Braking

Braking is the strongest force you can put through a track car – drivers will always pull the highest amount of G-force under deceleration. There is a lot of time to be won or lost in the braking phase of a corner, for various reasons.

Firstly, the later you can brake the better – so long as you arrive into the corner at the correct speed. Braking as late as possible means that you’ve used 100% of the grip available all the way through the deceleration phase – if you’re not using 100% of the grip available while braking in a straight line, you could’ve braked later.

The data trace below compares two brake pressure traces – the red line is me and the blue line is my (pretty fast) student. As you can see I brake later and harder (and trail the brakes in a little further). We actually enter the corner at a very similar speed, but I’ve been more efficient – used all of the available grip – under braking. In this case, I braked 10m later which equated to 0.2 seconds.

Braking Data Trace

What’s just as important – perhaps more – is how you release the brakes. I spoke about it briefly in a couple of previous articles, but how you release brake pressure is critical to the balance of the car as you enter the corner – it’s called trail braking and you can read more about it here.

Types of Braking Systems

There are two types of braking systems (plus McLaren’s Brake Steer system which we won’t cover) that your track car could have – either a ‘traditional’ non-ABS system or a more modern ABS (anti-lock braking) system.

A non-ABS system is a simple, mechanical arrangement. The more pressure you add to the pedal, the more braking you have. If you press the pedal too hard, the tyres will break traction and stop rotating.

All single seaters, sports cars and a lot of track day toys such as Caterhams, Ariel Atoms, Radicals and BAC Monos have non-ABS systems.
I prefer non-ABS systems – they’re purer – but they require a lot of feel to get the most out of them. If you have good feel, you can slow the car faster and can manipulate the balance better.

The distinct disadvantage of a non-ABS system is that if you lock the front tyres – so they cease to rotate – you also lose the ability to steer, which clearly has its issues.

This can be dangerous for beginner drivers with little feel, who will only lock up when they feel they have braked too late. What they need to do in this situation is to release brake pressure slightly – but this is the last thing a panicked beginner will want to do! When the tyre is locked, the driver cannot steer and so they head off into the scenery rather quickly.

ABS systems allow drivers to hit the brake pedal as hard as they can and rely on an intelligent electronic system that will apply and reapply the brake pressure. A continuous locking of the brakes won’t happen, but rather small and fast lockups, with some rotation in between.

While this isn’t the most efficient way to brake, it’s easy and allows the car to turn (as the tyre isn’t locked) even if the driver has little feel. It’s not precise – nor is it that fast – but it keeps some drivers on the circuit.

ABS systems were invented for road cars (an important safety development in automotive history) and have now found their way into racing through many modern GT cars competing in series such as the Ferrari Challenge.

The drawing below compares braking distances from three different scenarios. Firstly, we have a good driver threshold braking with a non-ABS system, slowing the car as efficiently as possible. Next, we have the braking distance for a driver using an ABS system – notice that the deceleration is not as efficient as threshold braking. And finally, we have a driver who has stamped on the brakes (causing lockups) in a non-ABS car, who decelerates the slowest and can’t turn the car.

Braking Distance (threshold, ABS, lock)

 

How a Brake Pressure Trace Should Look

Many racing cars that use data logging systems will record brake pressure throughout their driving sessions. When I’m coaching a good driver, this is what we’ll spend most of our time analysing – it’s probably the most difficult aspect for amateur drivers to get right.

As you can see in the diagram below, we have a data trace that compares brake pressure (y-axis) versus distance (x-axis). It shows a typical brake trace for a corner that requires a reasonable amount of deceleration.

Ideal Braking Trace

Let’s run through the diagram, thinking about our inputs into the car as we go. The steps are as follows:

  1. Transition from throttle to brake pedal
  2. Squeezing on brake pedal and increasing to maximum braking capacity
  3. Modulate pressure to stay around the grip threshold
  4. Easing off the brake pressure smoothly

Phase 1: The movement from the throttle to brake pedal must be as fast as possible. Any time lost here isn’t huge, but it’s still time lost.

Phases 2: When we are applying the brakes we don’t want to shock the car, which will cause it to break traction. In the same breath, we don’t want to take too long to get to maximum braking capacity. It’s a fine line to get this perfectly and this phase requires a lot of feel.

If your inputs are refined enough, you can begin to feel when the tyre starts to under rotate – something we’re going to go over in the next section of this article.

Phases 3: Next, it’s a case of modulating brake pressure to keep the car at maximum deceleration and around the threshold of grip.

Phase 4: Finally, as you’re approaching turn-in, you’ll begin to smoothly release the brake pressure, so the front of the car rises to a balanced platform (see weight transfer article here). Hopefully, at this point, you’re at the correct speed and on the perfect racing line. If so, you’re almost halfway to taking the perfect corner!

How to Brake with a Traditional Braking System (non-ABS)

Your braking trace – or pressure – should always be similar to the diagram above (apart from cars with aerodynamic grip, where as speed decreases in the braking zone, so does grip).

In a car that does not have ABS, the most difficult task is to be at the edge of grip constantly and consistently.

When we’re talking about threshold braking and the edge of grip – when the tyre is about to break traction – it’s important that we understand slip percentage. Slip percentage is the difference in wheel speed between how fast the tyre should be rotating and how fast it is rotating.

For example, if the car is decelerating and currently at a speed of 100 mph, but the tyre is only turning at 90 mph (because it’s beginning to lock), we would say there was 10% slip. A tyre will generally provide the most grip with 3 – 10% slippage, so we’re looking for slight under-rotation.

Depending on the car, it can be difficult to feel when a tyre is under rotating and heading towards locking up – especially if you’re in a sportscar and can’t even see the front tyres.

It’s also common that there’s a slight imbalance with which end of the car locks up first. This, of course, can be rectified with a change of brake bias, which we’ll cover in a later tutorial.

How to Brake with ABS

While braking without ABS is all about feeling where the grip threshold is and staying there, there’s little need for concern when you have ABS.

While you don’t need to worry about locking your tyres, the most efficient way to brake with ABS is to actually not use it! You’ll want to stay just within the grip threshold while braking, so that we don’t engage the ABS system.

If you’ve never used the brakes hard in your car, you may be wondering what does ABS feel like? If you begin to use the ABS system, you will feel it working through the brake pedal – it’ll pulsate slightly and feel ‘gravelly’.

What’s important to realise is that once the majority of the deceleration is complete, we still need to release the brakes smoothly. The ABS will not help with maintaining a balanced platform and help weight transfer, that’s still up to the driver.

Braking for Fast and Slow Corners

A common mistake for amateur drivers is that they often use the brakes too much. It sounds really simple when I tell them to “brake less” but it’s tough to get right.

If you’re braking for a slow corner – where you require one or more downshifts – you’ll want to reach the maximum braking capacity of the car in order to decelerate as quickly as possible.

If you need to reduce speed for a faster corner however – where we’re likely not changing down – it’s usually better to brake with less pressure over a bigger distance. Fast corners are all about being smooth, with the whole car. If you stamp on the brake just before you turn, you’ll transfer the car’s weight too quickly and unbalance it.

However, if you ‘brush’ the brakes with less pressure, you get much less weight transfer and so the car will feel more stable through the corner. And when the car’s more stable, you can carry more speed. The diagram below is copied from my data around two corners at Silverstone, showing that I’m braking with significantly less pressure going into the faster corner – in order to unbalance the car as little as possible.

How to Brake into Fast and Slow Corners

Using Braking References

Braking references are important as when you’re trying to brake as late as possible, as you need to build up to the ultimate braking point. With a reference, you can begin further away from the corner and edge closer and closer to the latest braking point.

I only recommend using braking references for the longer braking zones. For corners that don’t require too much deceleration, you don’t have enough time to move your vision from the braking reference to the apex and so it’s best to keep your eyes there.

A reference can be a braking board, a crack in the asphalt or the end of a barrier. Anything that’s going to remain in place over time, and never a shadow as one of my students tried as these tend to move or disappear!

When you’re finding your braking spot, pick a reference that seems way too early and move forwards from this each lap, depending on how the previous lap went. The important thing is to be conscious of where your reference actually is. With so much going on on the circuit, it’s easy to forget you’re braking reference and then not adjust yourself on the following lap, wasting valuable track time.

Braking When You’re out of Control (Kind Of)

Sometimes drivers spin. By their natural, there are points when spinning that a professional driver is out of control. However, a good driver can (in a car without ABS) control a spin, so that the worst that happens is damaging a set of tyres.

If you have a spin and don’t use the brakes, it’s very difficult to know where you’re going to end up. But with a tactical application of the brake pedal you can reduce the likeliness of ending up in the wall.

The idea is that when the trajectory of the car (even when spinning) is taking you along the circuit – and importantly in between the barriers – you stamp on the brake pedal. This will cause the brakes to lock and so the car will continue to travel in the direction of the momentum – without the tyres gripping and sending you another way.

If the car, at any point, is facing forwards again release the brake pedal. The tyres should start rotating again and you might live to see another day!

While we’re talking about spinning, if you ever happen to spin – when racing or otherwise – make sure you never roll back across the circuit. I see this happen way too much and it can cause horrible and avoidable incidents.

Common Mistakes When Braking

There are a few technique mistakes I commonly see with amateur and track day drivers.

The first mistake is that many drivers take an age to release the throttle before getting on the brake pedal – it’s not much, but it will cost you some time. I think it’s a habit from road driving, but it’s a simple fix if you’re conscious of your pedal movements.

The next issues are very common amongst those new to circuit driving and all linked to the need to improve vision on track. They are:

  • Increasing brake pressure
  • Inconsistent brake pressure
  • Braking too early or late

All of these issues arise from braking at the wrong point and then trying to adjust speed appropriately once you’re on the brakes. The cause of being at the wrong speed, as you’re approaching a corner, is usually poor vision – where the driver is not looking far enough ahead.

You can watch the whiteboard tutorial here, but know that if you improve your vision and look at the apex when you’re in the braking zone, you’re braking will likely improve independently and you’ll begin to carry the correct speed into each corner.

Advanced braking techniques

As we near the end of this first tutorial on braking, I want to mention a few advanced braking techniques that are outside of the scope of this article, but that we’ve already covered or will cover later in the series:

  • Left foot braking – using your left foot to brake. This may be at all times on track, if you’re in a automatic or paddle shift car, or for certain corners in a manual where a downshift isn’t necessary.
  • Trail braking – continuing to brake (at a much-reduced rate) as you steer into a corner. Trail braking isn’t so much to slow the car, but rather to manipulate the balance of it.
  • Heel and Toe – matching the car’s engine speed to wheel speed when braking, to avoid the driven wheels locking.
  • Altering brake bias – this is when you change the balance of braking between the front and rear tyres, with the idea of having both ends break traction at the same time

Braking, along with many other aspects of circuit driving, is very difficult to get right. It’s even more difficult to get it right on every corner and every lap, but with practice and conscious driving you will get closer and closer to your car’s limit under braking. And when you do this, you’ll save a shed-load of lap time.

So, that’s it for this tutorial on braking. As always, thank you for reading and if you have any comments or questions, please get in touch.

Reference: https://driver61.com/

dampers

Dampers

Shock absorbers (also known as dampers) are designed to “dampen the oscillation of the spring after the wheel travels over bumps and dips.

There are many different explanations and examples of how to understand shocks, however shocks article at TurnFast! seems to explain everything quite clearly.

Without shock absorbers, the vehicle’s springs will continue to “oscillate” or repeatedly compress and uncompress, or “bounce.” This reduces the tire grip with the racing surface due to erratic shifts on the suspension and tire contact patch.

The stiffer the shock, the faster the weight transfer occurs. This will help the vehicle have very responsive steering, but the transfer can be too fast for the driver. This does not necessarily mean the faster the car will corner, but rather the faster that the weight will come to rest on that corner of the car as it is shifted either in corner entry or corner exit.

During cornering in particular, the driver must be able to induce smooth weight transfer and feel the tires reach their maximum grip. If the weight transfer occurs too fast, the driver will not feel the tires approach that peak grip, and will likely overshoot the traction capacity of the tires causing excessive sliding or spins.

Summary

The shock’s purpose is to control the oscillation of the spring’s response to bumps and dips. The stiffer the shock, the faster the dampening. The shock also controls the rate of weight transfer. The stiffer the shock is for compression (or “bump” as it is often called), the faster weight transfer occurs which determines how fast the tires will take their “set” in a corner, and the resulting steering responsiveness of the car.

It is possible to have too stiff a shock which will overpower the springs, and results in weight transfer being too fast for the driver’s experience and sensitivity to feel when maximum tire grip is achieved in a corner (generally resulting in a lot of spins).

Shocks need to be selected knowing the ratings of the springs.

Below is a general guide from Raceline Central that should assist you in fine tuning your shocks.

  • SHOCK COMPRESSION:
    • FRONT
      • The stiffer the front shocks, (higher the number) the tighter the car will be when braking.
      • The softer the front shocks, (lower the number) the looser the car will be when braking.
    • REAR
      • The stiffer the rear shocks, (higher the number) the looser the car will be under acceleration.
      • The softer the rear shocks, (lower the number) the tighter the car will be under acceleration.
  • SHOCK REBOUND:
    • FRONT
      • The stiffer the front shocks, (higher the number) the tighter the car will be under acceleration.
      • The softer the front shocks, (lower the number) the looser the car will be under acceleration.
    • REAR
      • The stiffer the rear shocks, (higher the number) the looser the car will be under braking.
      • The softer the rear shocks, (lower the number) the tighter the car will be under braking.
  • Shock synopsis:
    • RF (Right Front)
      • Higher compression will tighten the chassis entering a corner.
      • Lower compression will loosen the chassis entering a corner.
      • Higher rebound will tighten the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Lower rebound will loosen the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Overall stiffer RF shock will tighten chassis, weaker will loosen it.
    • RR (Right Rear)
      • Higher compression will loosen the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Lower compression will tighten the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Higher rebound will loosen the chassis entering a corner.
      • Lower rebound will tighten the chassis entering a corner.
      • Overall stiffer RR shock will loosen chassis, weaker will tighten it.
    • LF (Left Front)
      • Higher compression will tighten the chassis entering a corner.
      • Lower compression will loosen the chassis entering a corner.
      • Higher rebound will tighten the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Lower rebound will loosen the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Overall stiffer LF shock will loosen chassis, weaker will tighten it.
    • LR (Left Rear)
      • Higher compression will loosen the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Lower compression will tighten the chassis accelerating out of a corner.
      • Higher rebound will loosen the chassis entering a corner.
      • Lower rebound will tighten the chassis entering a corner.
      • Overall stiffer LR shock will tighten chassis, weaker will loosen it.
  • Asymmetrical changes:
    • The stiffer the shock, the less grip that tire will have.
    • Stiffer rebound on the left shocks will help the car turn in by slowing weight transfer to the right.
    • Stiffer compression on the right shocks will help the car turn in by also slowing weight transfer to the right.
    • Softer rebound on the front shocks will loosen the chassis exiting the corner.
    • Softer compression on the rear shocks will tighten the chassis exiting the corner.
    • Doing just the opposite mentioned above, on either compression or rebound will produce just the opposite results.
    • Asymmetrical changes seem to have a greater influence than individual shock changes.

See you on the track!

Reference: boxthislap.org/

header_gettingstarted

rFactor 2 getting started

RFACTOR 2 GETTING STARTED

 

Install

If you do not have rFactor 2 installed or the car, you will need to do some setting up first – this guide will help you get setup.  Firstly, when you run the game, be patient,  it will download and install some cool cars and tracks, if you have subscribed to a lot of content it can take quite a few minutes for the launcher to load.

Once you have installed rFactor 2 you should setup your graphics options from the ‘launcher’ below – click on the cog icon to load it up!

 

 

Now click on the video settings button:

 

 

Now depending on your config setup your options on the menu below – when you have done that click save.

 

Now click on the single player in the launcher and the game will load.

Wheel Setup

The other important part of your first install is your controller or wheel setup – here’s how to get to the menu, click on options at the bottom of the screen:

 

 

The options page will load, at the top you can see more elements to tweak, click on the controls tab:

 

Now you are in the controls menu!  Congrats!

This menu allows you to customise and setup your controller accordingly, just click on what you want to do and follow the instructions:

PS – if you have a wheel with 1 USB connection, like a G27 etc – we suggest you firstly click detect on the bottom right – that will make life easier!

 

 

You should now be able to drive to your hearts content, there are several other options for you to play with.

Getting Official Content

We don’t want to overload your download on your first run, so if you want to get more of our official content click here to see a list of collated items here https://steamcommunity.com/id/studio-397/myworkshopfiles/?appid=365960&sort=score&browsefilter=myfiles&view=imagewall  make sure you are no longer in-game and start to subscribe to the items you want!

Next to each bit of content click on the ‘+’ or the ‘subscribe’ button

Paid items will be posted on our item store right here http://store.steampowered.com/itemstore/365960/browse/?filter=all

 

 

 

I Still Need Help!

 

If you need more help, either post on our forum, or come and chat to us and many others in our rFactor 2 Discord server.

Forum – https://forum.studio-397.com/index.php

Discord – https://discord.gg/CruX93K